The M1 Garand (the United States Rifle, Caliber .30, M1) was the first semiautomatic rifle to be the standard small arm of the US Military requiring a trigger pull to fire a round but automatically chambering the next round. This greatly increased the rate of fire over bolt-action rifles and made it easier to refocus on a target after each round. Designed in the 1920s by Canadian John Cantius Garand, an employee of the Massachusetts Springfield Armory, it was the first semiautomatic rifle to be adopted by a major military power and enabled the United States to enter into World War II as the only country with a semiautomatic rifle as standard issue for its troops. In 1936, it officially replaced the bolt-action Springfield M1903 rifle as the standard service rifle of the United States military (the M1903 retained a valuable role as a sniper rifle) and was subsequently replaced by the select-fire M14 in 1957. However, the M1 continued to be used in large numbers until 1963 and to a lesser extent until 1966. The M1 was used heavily in World War II, the Korean War, and even in the Vietnam War.
The M1 was designed for semiautomatic fire using a spring steel clip containing 8 rounds. All other rifles used a detachable or fixed magazine. It had a maximum range of 3,200 meters and maximum effective range of 400 meters. Fully loaded with an 8-round clip, cleaning kit in butt stock, and sling, the M1 weighed 11 lbs.
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